This is a brief introduction on the 4 Caliphs that rules after our beloved Prophet (S.A.W) . None could compare in terms of righteousness, justness and vurtue..
The Era of The Four Caliphs
The era that followed the death of Allah’s apostle Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is called the era of the Four Caliphs. During this period, Islam flourished and spread far beyond the limits of the Arabian Peninsula. These were the times when Muslims witnessed victories and lived in ease.
The Period of Abu Bakr (632-634)
Abu Bakr (ra) was a friend of Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). He was one of the first people to receive the message and to become a Muslim. He accepted Islam at a time before it was openly proclaimed. Abu Bakr is the one of the prophet’s closest friends . He is the fine representative of Islamic morality, he lead several individuals to the practice of Islam namely Uthman , Talha ibn Ubaydullah Sa’d ibn Abi Vakkas , Zubayr ibn Awwam , Abd al-Rahman ibn Awf , and Abu Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah .
After the prophet’s death, Abu Bakr was elected as caliph on the recommendation of Umar.
In spite that his reign period was short as it lasted only two years, Abu Bakr was an ideal leader.
He called Muslims for unity and worked intensely to collect and preserve the texts of the holy Qur’an. He spread Islam from the borders of the Arabian Peninsula into Syria, Palestine and Iraq and faced false prophets and ensured the sameness of Islamic religion and the moral teachings of the holy Qur’an compared to the prophet’s time.
He was merciful, humble and respectful. He gained people’s love and adoration at that time. He helped the poor and the needy and freed many Muslim slaves by paying their owners significant sums of money. Abu Bakr was a wealthy merchant and he spent all his wealth spreading the moral teachings of Islam.
The Period of Umar (634-644)
One of the renowned members of the Qureysh tribe was Umar . He was impressed by Muslim’s strength and devotion to their religion in spite of all the hardships they went through.
After his conversion, he took his place in the company of our Prophet (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and became a well-known leader of Islamic morality. He spent his wealth to spread Islam. Following Abu Bakr’s death, Umar was elected as caliph.
He was known for his efforts to establish justice and his complete devotion to the moral teachings of the holy Qur’an. In brief, during his reign justice operated everywhere and he proved to be a model of the administration of justice for those who followed him.
His devotion to the moral values of the holy Qur’an offered him the opportunity to administer in a way that he could win the hearts of Muslims.
The Period of Uthman (644-656)
Uthman was the first one to accept Islam and one of the prophet’s closest companions. He had had an efficient way of speaking. He learned the holy Qur’an by heart.
After Umar’s death, he was elected to be caliph. Nobody objected his election as he had all the Muslims support. During his reign, he made various copies of the Holy Qur’an and sent it to different Islamic Centers.
In the course of his reign, he ensured that suitable candidates were selected for various positions and appointments. He was determined to augment the prosperous level of the Islamic community, and he did his best to develop gardens and vineyards. During his reign so many e unbelievers were converted to Islam.
The Period of Ali (656-661)
Ali is the son of Abu Talib, the Prophet’s Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) uncle.He was courageous, eloquent and wise. There was no doubt on agreeing that Ali was one of the greatest Muslim scholars. Since his childhood, Ali had been in Muhammad’s (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) side; he learned the holy Qur’an from him and served him. For this reason, Ali (ra) came to know a great deal about religious matters and as a result, was called to be among the advisors to Abu Bakr , Umar and Uthman .He built schools to educate Muslims. His martyrdom is considered as the ending point of the Four Caliph’s period.
Reference: Go makkah